What are the Objectives of Waste Water Treatment?

Waste water treatment is an essential process that aims to remove contaminants from water, making it safe for disposal or reuse. The primary objectives of waste water treatment are to protect public health, prevent environmental pollution, and conserve water resources. In this essay, we will explore the different objectives of waste water treatment in detail, including the processes involved and the technologies used.

Wastewater treatment is an essential process that contributes to preserving the environment and public health. The objective of this process is to remove contaminants and pollutants from water before releasing it back into the environment or reusing it. These contaminants can include organic matter, nutrients, suspended solids, and hazardous substances that can be harmful to humans, animals, and the environment. By treating wastewater, we can reduce the risks of waterborne diseases, protect aquatic life, and promote sustainable water management. In this article, we will explore the objectives of wastewater treatment and its importance in maintaining a healthy environment.

Protecting Public Health

One of the primary objectives of waste water treatment is to protect public health. Waste water can contain harmful contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, and chemicals that can cause diseases or infections. Untreated waste water can also contain high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, which can lead to the growth of harmful algae in natural water bodies. Waste water treatment facilities use various processes such as sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection to remove these contaminants and reduce the risk of public health hazards.


Sedimentation is a process that involves allowing waste water to settle in a large tank, allowing heavier particles such as sand, grit, and organic matter to sink to the bottom. This process removes up to 70% of suspended solids from the waste water.


Filtration involves passing the waste water through a series of filters that remove smaller particles and impurities such as bacteria and viruses. The filtration process can use various types of filters, including sand, gravel, and activated carbon filters.


Disinfection is the final stage of the waste water treatment process, which involves killing any remaining bacteria and viruses in the water. The most common disinfection method is using chlorine, which effectively destroys harmful pathogens.

Preventing Environmental Pollution

Another critical objective of waste water treatment is to prevent environmental pollution. Untreated waste water can contain high levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which can lead to eutrophication in natural water bodies, causing harmful algal blooms and depleting oxygen levels. Waste water treatment facilities use various processes such as biological treatment and nutrient removal to reduce the level of nutrients in the waste water.

One key takeaway from this text is that waste water treatment serves multiple important objectives. The primary objectives include protecting public health by removing harmful contaminants from the waste water, preventing environmental pollution by reducing the level of nutrients in the waste water, and conserving water resources by allowing for the reuse of treated waste water. Different processes and technologies are used to achieve these objectives, including sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, biological treatment, and nutrient removal. Overall, waste water treatment plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and sustainability of our water resources.

Biological Treatment

Biological treatment involves using microorganisms to break down organic matter in the waste water. This process can be aerobic or anaerobic, depending on the availability of oxygen. Aerobic treatment uses oxygen to break down organic matter, while anaerobic treatment does not require oxygen.

Nutrient Removal

Nutrient removal is the process of reducing the level of nitrogen and phosphorus in the waste water. This process can be achieved through various methods, including chemical precipitation, biological nutrient removal, and membrane filtration.

Conserving Water Resources

Water is a precious resource, and waste water treatment plays a vital role in conserving it. Treated waste water can be reused for various purposes, such as irrigation, industrial processes, and even drinking water in some cases. Reusing treated waste water reduces the demand for freshwater resources and helps to conserve them.

Reuse for Irrigation

Treated waste water can be used for irrigation purposes, which is an effective way of conserving freshwater resources. This process involves using the treated waste water to water crops and plants, reducing the demand for freshwater resources.

Reuse for Industrial Processes

Treated waste water can also be used for various industrial processes, including cooling and cleaning. Reusing treated waste water in industrial processes reduces the demand for freshwater resources and helps to conserve them.

Reuse for Drinking Water

In some cases, treated waste water can be reused for drinking water purposes. This process involves using advanced treatment technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection, to produce high-quality drinking water from waste water.

FAQs: What Are the Objectives of Wastewater Treatment?

What is the overall goal of wastewater treatment?

The primary objective of wastewater treatment is to remove harmful contaminants and pollutants from wastewater before it is released into the environment. This includes removing a variety of harmful substances such as organic and inorganic compounds, pathogens, and nutrients. The treated wastewater should meet environmental regulations and be safe for reuse or discharge into bodies of water.

Why is it important to treat wastewater before disposal?

Untreated wastewater is a significant source of pollution and can be harmful to both the environment and human health. It can contain a vast array of pollutants and contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, and chemical compounds. These pollutants can cause environmental damage, harm aquatic life, and affect public health negatively. Therefore, it is vital to treat wastewater before disposal to protect the environment, prevent waterborne diseases, and safeguard water resources sustainability.

What are the specific objectives of wastewater treatment?

The specific objectives of wastewater treatment depend on the wastewater treatment needs in different contexts. Generally, the primary objectives are to remove or neutralize contaminants that can be harmful to human health or the environment. This includes removing physical, chemical, and biological contaminants. Other objectives might include improving wastewater quality to reuse, reducing water demand, minimizing odors, and lowering treatment costs.

What are the benefits of wastewater treatment?

Wastewater treatment provides several significant benefits to the environment and public health. It reduces water pollution, which, in turn, helps protect and preserve aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity. Proper wastewater treatment also helps prevent the transmission of water-borne diseases. Additionally, it can reduce the risk of water scarcity by enabling the safe reuse of treated wastewater. Treatment also provides a sustainable way to manage wastewater, which can help minimize its impact on the environment and lower treatment costs.

How is wastewater treated?

Wastewater treatment involves several physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove harmful contaminants. Typically, it involves the primary treatment process for the removal of large solids, secondary biological treatment for the breakdown of organic material, and tertiary treatment for further purification of the effluent. These processes may include filtration, disinfection, sedimentation, and other chemical processes as required by the specific treatment needs. The treated wastewater undergoes strict testing and monitoring to ensure it meets the required discharge standards.

Leave a Comment